|What is my age:||I'm 28 years old|
A study comparing cardiovascular effects of ticagrelor versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (themis)
Annual Review of Plant Biology. Presented is a historical perspective of one scientist's journey from war-torn Europe to the opportunities presented by a flexible US educational system. It celebrates the opening of the science establishment that began in the s and its fostering of basic research, and recognizes individuals who were instrumental in guiding the author's education as well as those with whom she later participated in collaborative algal plant research. The initial discovery and later elucidation of phycobilisome structure are elaborated, including the structural connection with photosystem II.
Furthermore, she summarizes some of her laboratory's on carotenoids and its exploration of the isoprenoid pathway in cyanobacteria. Finally, she comments on the gender gap and how her generation benefited when opportunities for women scientists were enlarged. In I was born as Elisabeth Rohatsch in a multiethnic European region known to some as the Batschka, which is now part of Vojvodina, Serbia. For eighteenth-century Europe, the area had been a frontier where people from different regions settled and benefited from the efforts of the rich farmland reclaimed from the Danube River's swampy environs.
Cooperation prevailed even though the inhabitants of various towns tended to practice their own customs and spoke the languages of their ancestral regions. The small town of Gakovo, my birthplace, consisted largely of the Donauschwabenwho spoke a dialect of mixed languages with basic German roots. The town, although very near the Hungarian-Serbian national border, was generally affected little by the shifting of border deations until the later years of World War II.
The Hungarian-administered region was peaceful untilwhen the area was irrevocably threatened by the advance of Communist partisans.
Older people, including my paternal grandparents, stayed behind, but many younger women with children left for presumably greater protection in Germany or Austria. An elementary education was open to all children in Gakovo, which was fortunate in having two highly regarded schoolteachers.
Being from a middle-class family, I readily benefited by completing the first three elementary grades. Further schooling was not possible until many years later. In Aprilduring the last days of World War II, we were with a convoy that disbanded on a country road somewhere near Prague when the strafing and bombing stopped.
Even without the benefit of any radio announcement, we knew that this was the end of the armed conflict. Where did one go from here? It was not possible to return home during these war-ravaged times.
Our small family group—consisting of my mother, four-year-old brother, grandmother, aunt, and five-year-old cousin—had no creek of contact with other family members for years. Viewed from the perspective of today's instant news and communication, this would be hard to imagine. For the next few years we were sex through various camps and farms in Czechoslovakia, and were finally moved to the Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany.
This was undoubtedly the lowest point of our experience, greatly exacerbated by the combination of west hunger and daily fears attendant 8092 living in a totalitarian state. Schooling was rare, with just an occasional few hours at a time. An illegal escape to the British Occupation Zone was successful on our second try, leading to a stay in a recently transfigured camp of Dachau within the American Occupation Zone.
Ah—what heaven it was when an old bicycle became available to us! By our lives had eased considerably with care packages from the United States and regular school attendance. One may ask, what does one learn from such war-imposed experiences? The answer is simple: It clarifies life's priorities and keeps one from getting real in trivia. Retaining our citizenship required reaching the United States before our 16th birthdays, which proved a challenge since I was already at the ripe age of Old friends of my maternal grandparents looking provided sponsorship for us to enter the United States, and we were indeed grateful for their support.
We arrived in Chicago in April As a parting gift from my then teacher, who taught grades 5 through 8 in one room, I was given a few essential lessons in algebra. My schoolmates, on the other hand, were more concerned about my safety, as I was bound NewJersey the city of Al Capone. The Dick and Jane books provided my first English-language exposure in summer school. Although comic books were frowned upon, I found them much more helpful—outside of school, of course—because through the cartoon pictures they provided a lady of reference. Even at that time, one was wisely required to take a second language.
Latin, being the basis of so many Western languages, seemed like the most rational choice. Yet for me, comprehension required a multistep translation: Latin to English, and English to German. After struggling for a whole year, someone took notice and allowed that German could serve as my second-language requirement. Without any prior familiarity with or instruction on such tests, it can take precious time to divine what one is supposed to do.
If I have any remaining psychological scars, this may be one, because I have never become a great fan of such exams.
This was in part because it had a diverse student body and faculty. It was already racially integrated, its close proximity to the University of Chicago allowed some younger faculty members to pursue advanced degrees, and many children of the university faculty attended the high school. One superb and dedicated biology teacher was Mrs. Margaret Hawkes Figure 1with whom I had my first biology course. I had the opportunity for additional contact with her outside the formal classroom, as I was responsible for chores such as cleaning the guinea pig cages and tending the laboratory plants.
She encouraged many of her students to extend their activities and to prepare for science contests if possible, although this was not possible for me since I had family responsibilities that included working after school hours and performing household chores. My mother was the breadwinner, working in a battery factory by day, and attended secretarial school in the evening.
Although at the time it seemed unlikely, Mrs. Hawkes put the idea of attending college into my head. Even state schools like the University of Illinois and Illinois State Normal University were not within financial reach, but she knew of a somewhat unusual institution called Blackburn College.
With her encouragement, a partial one-year scholarship provided by the high school, and input from the principal, college became a possibility. Figure 1. Blackburn College is a small school in Carlinville, Illinois, that educates mostly first-generation college attendees. In it had a fully integrated work plan where every student participated in work ranging from laboratory assistance and cooking to janitorial work, building construction, and beyond. Having been inspired by Mrs. Hawkes as a role model, I aimed toward becoming a high school biology teacher, which I pursued even through some boring preparatory courses and practice teaching.
Survival of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd)
Disillusioned by the general high school students' attitudes, and not being a natural disciplinarian, I began aiming toward teaching in a college. With a master's degree one could be hired at many colleges in those years.
Biology at Blackburn was taught by William E. Over four years I took all the courses he offered, including zoology, genetics, botany, animal comparative anatomy, histology, and ecology. In the current age of superspecialization, this may seem an amazing variety for one instructor, but he also found time to pursue independent ecological research. In subsequent years he even wrote a timely column for the local paper on the natural flora and on conservation.
Figure 2. One of my most satisfying jobs was being Dr. Werner's teaching assistant, which included preparing much of the laboratory material and helping students with identifications and clarifications. Much of the histology laboratory material included tissue slides for identifying typical tissues of cartilage, muscle, and blood types. Discriminating shades of pink and hues of red was required to identify eosinophils and basophils. One redheaded student seemed to be teasing me when he claimed to have difficulty in differentiating between the two blood cell types.
Werner whipped out a book with samples of the Ishihara color test and asked the student, R. Raymond Gantt, whether he could differentiate certain s against various colored backgrounds. This time Raymond Gantt had put the teasing aside, as he became aware that he is partially color-blind, but teasing is not foreign to him—as I know after plus years of marriage to him.
In we were part of the group of graduating biology majors, all of whom went on to earn advanced degrees one to the master's level and the remainder to PhDs or MDs. Our small class was not unusual, but the successes of Dr. Werner's students are unquestionably due to his inspirational effect on so many over his year academic career. Our generation was shocked by the October 4,announcement of the launch of Sputnik. We felt both stunned and threatened, and it marked an important milestone in the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.
Predictably, it galvanized the US science establishment and the public's support. The National Science Foundation, formally established intook a leading role in increasing the of scientists and supporting research in the basic sciences, as did the US Public Health Service. The basic sciences began to flourish, and our generation was a major beneficiary. Intellectually it was a heady time, and the freedom to explore brought major advances in both the life sciences and the physical sciences, with benefits for human and planetary health and space exploration.
Ina more personal but just as momentous event occurred.